According to Genesis 10, Canaan was the father of Sidon (Greater (on land) and Lesser (on sea)) his firstborn, and of the Hittites (Indo-European and Canaanite), Jebusites (from Jerusalem), Amorites (most of the Levant), Girgashites (completely unknown, Canaanite tribe), Hivites (Hurrians? probably some Canaanite tribe W. of Jordan), Arkites (Irqata/Arka, 34°31’50″N, 36° 2’48″E), Sinites (Ugaritic Siyannu, at Tell Siyanu, 35°21’56″N, 36° 0’10″E), Arvadites (Isle or Arvad), Zemarites (Amarna Sumur, 34°42’30″N, 35°59’10″E) and Hamathites (Hamah).
The Periplus was written by a Greek author living in mid-1st Century AD Berenice. These are the locations of the cities he tells are on the African coast North of the Cape of Spices.
1. Myos Hormos (Mussel Harbor)-Quseir al-Quadim/Old Quseir, 26° 9’24″N, 34°14’32″E.
2. Berenice-Ras Banas, 23°54’38″N, 35°28’32″E.
3. Ptolemais of the Hunts-Described by Pliny as being near Lake Monoleus, by Strabo, on a peninsula reached just after a cultivated island subject to the inundation, at/near 18°11’41″N, 38°21’15″E.
4. Adulis-near Zula, ruins located exactly at 15°15’43″N, 39°39’35″E.
5. Very Deep Bay-15° N, 40° 20′ E
10. Little Nile River-11°30’3″N, 49°55’26″E.
11. Cape Elephant-Ras el-Fil, 11°56’31″N, 50°37’57″E.
12. River Elephant-11°58’9″N, 50°49’5″E.
1. The Land of Goshen, where the Israelites lived (Exodus 9:26) was in the area of Pithom/Tell Retabeh and Ramesses/Qantir, east of the Pelusiac (Ex 1:11).
2. Pharaoh’s residence was hit by the plague of flies, while Goshen was not (Ex 8:21-24). Since the Israelites lived in Ramesses/Qantir, the capital during the time of writing of Exodus could not have been the Ramesside capital, Pi-Ramesse/Ramesses, and was certainly west of the Pelusiac.
3. According to Ex 7:15, the Exodus capital was on the bank of the Nile. According to Ex 12:31-41, one could leave Egypt from the capital in less than a night. There was an implied proximity between the capital and Goshen. Psalm 78:12, 43, confirms the identification of the Exodus capital with Zoan/Tanis.
The main arguments against the identification of Gimiri/Gomer/Cimmerians with the Israelites and for their identification as a people expelled from Scythia and settled in the area around modern Gyumri (Gamir) are three:
1. Humri (Omri) and Gimiri (Gomer) are spelled differently by the Assyrians.
2.The archeology of Cimmerian sites in Turkey shows the Cimmerian culture is Early Scythian, not Iron II B Israelite.
3. No ancient historian makes the connection between Cimmerians and Omri. Indeed, the Bible itself shows the Cimmerians were considered by the Israelites to be the most predominant of people north of the Araxes, having nothing to do with Israel or the House of Omri. Genesis 10 claims Gomer is a Japethite people, with its sons being Scythians (Ashkenaz), Riphathites (Paphlagonians? inhabitants of the Montes Riphei?), and Armenians (Togarmah). Ezekiel 38:6 also claims it is a northern people, and names it along with “Beth-Togarmah from the far north”.
The border began at a northern Mt. Hor, which was probably, as supported by Joshua 13:4, and by the name “Hor”, a prominent mountain in the area of Byblos (Josh 13:5). Lebo-Hamath is modern Laboue, Ramesses II’s “Labwe Wood” and Tiglath Pileser III’s “Lab’u” in the land of Hamath (not Labana!=Al Qusayr or just SE). Zedad is modern Sadad, Ziphron, Hawwarin, and Hazar-Enan, Al Quaryatayn. As for the eastern border, Shepham seems to be somewhere between the Hauran and Upper Yarmuk, and Ain west of Riblah is at Khirbet ‘Ayyun/A’yoon/Uyun, 32°43’10″N 35°39’60″E. The border then goes along the slope E. of the south end of the Sea of Galilee, down the Yarmuk and into the Jordan. (Note: the South border is already covered in AJaL).
“Aphek”, meaning “enclosure”, “stronghold”, or “strength” is the name of several Biblical cities. Let us find out their locations.
The first Aphek in the Bible is Antipatris (32° 6’18″N, 34°55’48″E). It is mentioned in Joshua 12:18, 1 Sam 4:1, and 1 Sam 29:1 (30:1). The second Aphek is the one of Asher. It may be at Tell Kurdeinah, or Tel Afek, in Ein Afek Nature Reserve. There should also be a third, Aramean Aphek at the Damasco-Samarian border, mentioned only in Kings. A possible, but unlikely candidate for this Aphek may be at the plain northeast of modern Afik, Golan Heights. The fourth and last Aphek, of Joshua 13:4, may be the Asherite Aphek, but is, due to the use of “as far as” to refer to a northwardly direction in the next verse, most likely identified with Afqa, Lebanon, which was probably at the border of the state and later territory or land of Amurru.
They laughed at Galileo. They laughed at Newton. They laughed at Copernicus. They laughed at Einstein. They laughed at Sayce. They laughed at Rohl. They laughed at Andy Wakefield. They laughed at Velikovsky. They laughed at Ron Wyatt. They laughed at Morris. They laughed at Schlafly. They laughed at Fleischmann and Pons. They laughed at Mike Adams. They laughed at David J. Stewart. They laughed at the kid in Algebra 1 thinking this whole 2 + 2 = 4 stuff was “a conspiracy by Big Math and it’s insidious Big Integer agents in schools” (hat tip to Greg Fish).
And rightly so.
All revolutionary ideas should be subjected to the most rigorous critical peer review by professional scholars in the field after being introduced to the scholarly world. If this blog gains influence, it will begin to have influence on the scholarly world. My research on Cadytis, Kadesh-Barnea, Ziklag, Beersheba, and, possibly, even my speculations on the locations on Mount Sinai in AJaL, will be accepted as solid, indisputable fact, except, of course, for the speculations about Mount Sinai, which will only be treated as interesting, but not conclusive. (Edit as of 11/12/12: That was arrogant. I should have subjected my own ideas to further critical examination before making such possibly false pronouncements. Ziklag’s location is still speculative, while the rest of my research on these places of southern Palestine still looks solid.)
Scholars do not condemn a certain idea simply because they don’t like it. They condemn it because it is in disagreement with mountains of evidence piled up over the years and will make several specialties impossible to study. The Vaccine-Autism link, for instance, contradicts fourteen good studies. Velikovsky’s idea of Ramesses II and Necho II being the same person contradicts the fact Tanis, a small provincial town during the days of Ramesses II, and later a mighty Delta capital, contains a large number of Ramesside monuments from Pi-Ramesse used by numerous other kings. Ron Wyatt’s belief a land bridge exists between Nuweiba and the Saudi coast contradicts simple terrain data (go to the “View” tab on Google Earth, turn off Water Surface, and see what I mean).
Those who promote what is commonly considered pseudoscience and claim a conspiracy is conspiring against them, while ignoring all evidence contrary to their preferred pseudoscience, are not working toward a better, more balanced science. They are promoting a world where all reality is in the mind of its beholder. In the medical sphere, this leads to piles of the prematurely dead. In the historical sphere, it leads to nowhere. In the religious sphere, it leads to what we have today. In the industrial sphere, it leads to the end of all planning. In the literary sphere, it leads to the end of language. Those who promote what is commonly considered pseudoscience and claim a conspiracy is conspiring against them, while ignoring all evidence contrary to their preferred pseudoscience, are evil. (Edit as of 11/12/12: True in a limited sense; their beliefs are certainly “evil”; whether they are evil themselves is a matter of semantics.)
The “arrogant bullying” and “intellectual tyranny” of science is necessary to get closer to the truth about the world.
According to Herodotus, “on land Necos engaged battle at Magdolos with the Syrians, and conquered them; and after this he took Cadytis, which is a great city of Syria; and the dress which he wore when he made these conquests he dedicated to Apollo, sending it to Branchidai of the Milesians”. So, where is Cadytis? According to Herodotus,
“Now by this way only is there a known entrance to Egypt: for from Phoenicia to the borders of the city of Cadytis belongs to the Syrians who are called of Palestine, and from Cadytis, which is a city I suppose not much less than Sardis, from this city the trading stations on the sea- coast as far as the city of Ienysos (Khan Yunis) belong to the king of Arabia, and then from Ienysos again the country belongs to the Syrians as far as the Serbonian lake, along the side of which Mount Casion extends towards the Sea.”
Since Herodotus is using Cadytis as a reference point for coastal cities, it is obvious Cadytis must be situated near the Southern Philistine coast. The only major city in South Philistia is Gaza. Therefore, Cadytis must be Gaza (31°30’17″N, 34°27’50″E). The Greeks might have pronounced Gaza’s Akkadian, Assyrian (and Persian) name Khazita, used by Sargon II (incorrectly called “Shalmaneser” by some 19th century scholars) or Hazzatu, used in the Amarna letters, as Cadyta, naturally adding an “is” as a masculine ending. The battle at Magdolos might refer to the encounter with Josiah at Megiddo, but most likely refers to the battle with the Chaldeans at Migdol (Jeremiah 44:1, 46:14, Ezekiel 29:10, 30:6)/Tell Kedua (30°58’60″N, 32°28’31″E) in December 601/January 600 BC. By Nebuchadnezzar II’s admission, the Chaldean army was catastrophically defeated. The conquest of Gaza/Cadytis after this victory by Pharaoh Necho II, also known as Necos or Nekau Wehemibre, is reflected in Jeremiah 47:1. The idea Cadytis is Jerusalem is totally disproven by the fact Persian Period Jerusalem, said by Herodotus to be the size of Sardis, was limited entirely to the hill of the City of David, east of the modern road, with no room for a connection between that poor settlement and the Temple Mount (no settlement was found at the Stepped Stone structure; this fact alone destroys Martin’s idea).
I continue my critique of the Velikovskyans.
The record of Ramesses III (1184-1153 BC)’s messengers’ voyage to the mining country of Atika can be found here. According to Ramesses III, translated by Breasted,
“I sent forth my messengers to the country of Atika, to the great copper mines which are in this place. Their galleys carried them (Lit. “were laden with them;” meaning, of course, the messengers); others on the land journey were upon their asses. It had not been heard before, since kings reign. (Lit. “since the reign;” viz., “since the reign of kings began.”) Their mines were found abounding in copper; it was loaded by ten thousands into their galleys. They (or “it”, the copper) were sent forward to Egypt and arrived safely. It was carried and made into a heap under the balcony, in many bars (Lit. “bricks”) of copper, like hundred-thousands, being of the colour of gold of three times. I allowed all the people to see them, like wonders”
This country was thought by Breasted to have been in the Sinai. It has been identified by scholarship ever since Rothenberg’s findings with the copper mine of Timna. The place the galleys landed has been identified with the anchorage island of Jezirat Faraun (29°27’47″N, 34°51’36″E). A cartouche of Ramesses III, found in the Nahal Roded, the wadi at 29°36’13″N, 34°54’25″E, in February 1972, seems to confirm the scholarly identification.
However, as usual, the Velikovskyans deny the conventional scholarly identification and suppose that “Atika” is actually “Attica”, since the mines of the Sinai were exploited long before Ramesses III, but Ramesses III claimed he was the first to do so. Firstly, the mines of Timna, unlike the mines of Maghara, were only exploited between the reigns of Seti I and Ramesses IV, not exactly very long ago by Ramesses II’s standards (just over a hundred years before). Secondly, Ramesses III could easily get away with his propaganda, since the mines of Timna had not been visited for quite some time. The metal Ramesses III mined was copper “of the colour of gold of three times”. It was certainly not iron! Also, Attica could not have possibly been reached by donkeys. All of the “they”s refer to the messengers and no one else. The identification of Atika with Timna seems secure.
The Hittites are mentioned in the Bible numerous times. However, only a few of these references could be considered as references to the Indo-European Neo-Hittite states which flourished after the 11th century BC (Gen 10:15??, Judges 1:26?, 1 Kings 11:1?). 1 Kings 10:29 and 2 Kings 7:6 are the only certain reference to these states. The “Sons of Heth”, mentioned along with the Canaanites, Amorites, Perizzites, Jebusites and Girgashites in the Bible, meanwhile, are a mystery. They may be Iron Age reflections of possible Hittite immigrants finding Canaan a land of opportunity in the 10th century and later, which, while not archeologically sustained, may have culturally became the same as the Canaanites and Israelites. There may have been Hittites culturally similar to Canaanites in the Late Bronze Age. The most likely option, however, is that the Sons of Heth were just another tribe of Canaanites having no relation to the Hittites mentioned in Egyptian texts.