Naucratis, stretching roughly from 30°54’13″N, 30°35’34″E to 30°53’41″N, 30°35’41″E and from 30°54’0″N, 30°35’25″E to 30°53’58″N, 30°35’54″E, called Tell Nebireh today, was the primary Greek colony in Egypt. The Canopic branch of the Nile flowed directly to the West of it. It was under Psammetichus I which the first Greeks settled. Strabo records that the Milesians founded it by sailing in the reign of Psammetichus up to the Saitic nome. The ware at Naucratis being almost entirely Chian corroborates Strabo’s statement of Naucratis being a Miletan colony. Pharaoh Amosis, favoring the Naucratians over all the Greeks, monopolized Greek trade there. The site continued throughout the Persian, Roman, and Byzantine eras, and was abandoned in the 7th century, however, this period is not well recorded.

Where did Megiddo go?

Megiddo entered biblical history in the Book of Joshua. It, being a strategic fortress at the mouth of the Aruna (‘Ara) pass, the easiest way around the Carmel ridge, was the site of the first well-recorded battle ever, in 1458 BC. Taanach (modern Ti’anik, W. Bank) was said to have been by its waters in Judges 5:19. It was one of the cities built by Solomon in the 930s BC (1 Kings 9:15). Ahaziah of Judah died there in 841 BC. Josiah died there in a confrontation with Pharaoh Necho. It was destroyed and abandoned forever in 587/6 BC.

So, what happened to it?

It was replaced by the Hasmonean or earlier Jewish village of
Khefar Otnai, or Caparcotnei, at the site of the modern high-security prison of Megiddo, which was considered to be at the edge of Galilee. Sometime before 120 AD, Hadrian settled the 6th Roman Legion to guard the entrance to the Aruna pass at what would be named Legio, at 32°34’40″N, 35°11’15″E. Under Constantine the Great, a new city, Maximianopolis, said to be above the Hadad Rimmon of Zechariah 12:11 (interpreted to be where Josiah died), which was in fact, not a place-name, but a Canaanite god. was built on the southern hill of modern Kibbutz Megido. In time, the Arabs destroyed the city and settled a new village, al-Lejjun, keeping the old name Legio, which lasted until 1948, when the the Arab inhabitants left to make way for the modern Kibbutz Megido.

Who be Zerah?

According to 2 Chron 4, in the 11th year of Asa (902 BC), Zerah the Cushite tried to invade Judah by way of Mareshah (just south of Beit Guvrin). Since the reign of Asa (912-871 BC) corresponds well with the reign of Osorkon I (924-889 BC) of Egypt, a Libyan, not a Cushite, Zerah must not be the name of a king, but of a military commander. Unfortunately, even with all Zerah’s chariotry, he was struck down as far as Gerar (Tel Haror, 31°22’54″N, 34°36’26″E), due to the military preparedness and superior position (higher usually beats lower) of Asa’s troops. Asa also managed to get a significant amount of booty from the villages surrounding the then-small town of Gerar and from Zerah’s own troops. However, Chronicles does not state Asa acquired the newly devastated territory.


1206 BC- Shasu of Edom pass the Fort of Merenptah which is in Succoth to reach the Pools of Pithom of Merenptah which is/are in Succoth, probably at Tell el-Retabeh, 30°32’53″N, 31°57’50″E.

Pre-Saite-The Israelites journey from Rameses and encamp in Succoth and after leaving Succoth they camp in Etham on the edge of the desert.

Saite-Necho builds Tell el-Maskhuta, 30°33’8″N, 32° 5’57″E. Retabeh is abandoned.

309-246 BC-Ptolemy II mentions Pithom and Succoth as cities in a stele found at Maskhuta. The Septuagint mentions Heroopolis as the city of the land of Ramesses Judah went before when he met Joseph.

15 AD-Strabo mentions Heroopolis as a city near the Gulf of Suez.

Early 2nd century-Ptolemy mentions Heroopolis as a city near the Gulf of Suez.

280s AD-The Itinerary of Antonius goes as thus: From Babylon to Heliopolis-58,000 feet/XII miles

From Heliopolis to Scenae Veteranorum-87,000 feet/XVIII miles or 67,700 feet/XIV miles

From Scenae Veteranorum to Vicus Judaeorum-58,000 feet/XII miles

From Vicus Judaeorum to Thou/Tohu-58,000 feet/XII miles

From Thou to Heroopolis-116,000 feet/XXIV miles

From Heroopolis to Serapeum-97,000 feet/XVII miles

From Serapeum to Clysma-242,000 feet/L miles

303-305 AD Milestone found at Maskhuta states: “From Ero to Clysma, 9 miles”, proving Ero is near Retabeh, or that there was a ‘Clysma’ where the Nile-Red Sea canal flowed into Lake Timsah. I suspect the latter possibility is more likely.

Early 5th century- Egeria says: “The city of Pithom, which the children of Israel built, was shown to us on the same journey at the place where, leaving the lands of the Saracens, we entered the territory of Egypt; the same Pithom is now a fort. The city of Hero, which existed at the time when Joseph met his father Jacob as he came, as it is written in the book of Genesis, is now a come,4 though a large one–a village as we say. This village has a church and martyr-memorials, and many cells of holy monks, so that we had to alight to see each of them, in accordance with the custom which we had. The village is now called Hero; it is situated at the sixteenth milestone from the land of Goshen, and it is within the boundaries of Egypt; moreover, it is a very pleasant spot, for an arm of the Nile flows there.”

4th Century-Coptic translation of the Septuagint translates “Heroopolis” as “Pithom”.

The Bible Unearthed-An Extended Review, Part 4

Chapter 2

The anti-biblical portions of this chapter are almost entirely lie, misleading information, and falsehood. The chapter begins with an exposition of the sojourn through Sinai narrative, then talks a little about the Hyksos invasion and expulsion, strangely, giving the wrong dates (the reign of Ahmose I began in 1550, not 1570 BC, and the expulsion of the Hyksos should have taken Ahmose at least a few years, and at most, seventeen, to complete). F&S’s pointing out the fact the name “Ramesses” only appears in the thirteenth century and just after is a little irrelevant (a fundy could simply call “scribal update”). The absence of Israel in Egyptian records until 1209/8 (incorrectly stated by Finkelstein as 1207, the Egyptians did not use ascension dating) is a little curious, but, there is little room for mention of any specific groups of non-settled peoples in Palestine in Egyptian records except in name lists of Shasu tribes (i.e. Amenhotep III’s list). BTW, F&S should know there were no opportunities for Israel being mentioned at any time in Egypt (Hyksos-era record-keeping is nonexistent, when Egyptians mentioned slaves, they would only state ethnicity (Nubian, Asiatic, sometimes whether or not they were POW’s), not tribal affiliation. The voluminous archives F&S imagine we have from Tjaru and Ramesses simply do not exist (that Papyrus Anastasi 6 mentioning Pithom and Succoth was only found as trash in the sands of Saqqara after being used by a student scribe for training), there were only seven wine jar dockets recovered from Ramesses and no papyri whatsoever from Tjaru or any of the eastern fortresses. The Bible also explicitly states Israel had permission from Pharaoh to go, so all those fortresses in the Wadi Tumilat (those on the Via Maris are irrelevant) do not matter much anyway. The fact Israelite remains are absent from all archeological surveys of the Sinai stems from the fact that no tent dweller ever used pottery when in deserts for long periods of time, but goatskins. No campsite of Ramesses II at Kadesh or Thutmose III at Megiddo has been found (neither has any one of the Egyptian miners who went to Serabit el Khadim in the Sinai) The anachronisms F&S point to do not exist (Tell el Kheleifeh (29°32’50″N, 34°58’50″E), which F&S assume to be Ezion-Geber, cannot be Ezion-Geber, but is probably Eloth (built by Uzziah, then destroyed and rebuilt by Edomites [mistaken for Arameans, Hebrew d’s and r’s look almost exactly the same, plus, see previous verse]), it cannot hold ships of Tarshish on its shallow beach, see Sect. 6 of AJaL for Migdol (indeed, this toponym proves Ex. 14 must have been written before the late seventh century BC), this for Kadesh). The only real anachronism in the book of Exodus is the Tanite one. It is true, however, that Heshbon and other sites, such as Arad, were only settled during some distant earlier period and the Israelite era, proving that Numbers, at least, must have been written during the 1st millennium BC. Edom was a state a century before the Assyrian era. There is no evidence Goshen was named for an Arab king of Nehemiah’s time. Mention of spies from an Asiatic country need not be interpreted as evidence of a post-Assyrian date of writing, but could just as well be interpreted as pointing to a Ramesside (Hittites!) or a 13th-14th Dynasty date (Hyksos!). Even a Middle Kingdom date is permissible (nomadic Asiatics could attempt to bypass the Walls of the Ruler to invade the E. Delta to get pastureland, water, and food)! See Hoffmeier, “Israel in Egypt”, for the Egyptian elements. The idea the Exodus epic describes a struggle between Necho II and Josiah is just… stupid (remember the mid-12th century epic of Ex. 15 and the mentions in the Prophets).

The Karnak Relief of Shoshenq I/Shishak!

UPDATE (June 27, 2012): Someone else has published the complete list! Huzzah!

Row I

1. Upper Egypt

2. Lower Egypt

3. The Tribesmen (Nubia)

4. Libya

5. Sekhet-Iam (Westerners)

6. mn.tiw (Asiatics, sometimes Westerners)

7. bowmen of the feather (E. Desert)

8. Upper Nubia

9. he.w-nb-w (Haunebu, or Ha-nebu, meaning “all the northerners”, originally meaning “Delta-men”, later, Aegeans)

10. Roll/Scroll (?)

11. Ge…/Ga…

12. M[ ]e[ ]

13. Rubutu/Rubate (Arubboth/Araba?)

Row II

14. Taanach

15. Shunem

16. Beth-Shean

17. Rehob

18. Hapharaim

19. Adoraim or Adullam

20. xxx (Zaphon?)

21. shwd (Akk. Shadu=Mountain? Eshatol?)

22. Mahanaim

23. Gibeon

24. Beth-horon

25. Qadtam (Qatane?) or Qiriatim (Kiriath-Jeraim?)

26. Aijalon


27. Megiddo

28. Adar

29. Hand of the King (some monument)

30. habiruta (Abu Hawam?)

31. Henam

32. Aruna (‘Ara)

33. Borim (Khirbet Burin, 32°18’37″N, 34°58’59″E)

34. Zeit (Olive Grove)-Padalla (Zeita)

35. Yehem (modern Yama)

36. Beth-‘Olam

37. kqr (unknown)

38. Socoh

39. Beth-Tappuah (?)

Row IV

40. Brook (?)

41. ‘a bi-ru-‘e (‘Ubal?)

42. xxx

43. xxx

44. xxx

45. bt-dbi[ ] (Beth-Saba?)

46. xxx

47. xxx

48. xxx

49. xxx

50. xxx

51. xxx

52. xxx

Row V

53. Penuel

54. Hdsht (New Town? Hadashah?)

55. peket or pe-wr-ktt

56. Adam

57. Zemaraim

58. [Mig]dol

59. [Tir]rzah

60. xxx

61. xxx

62. xxx

63. xxx

64. xxx

65. The Valley

Row VI

66. Ezem (Umm el ‘Azam, 31° 3’5″N, 35° 0’13″E)

67. ‘I-n-m-i-r-i

68. The enclosure [of]

69. Photis

70. irhrr-“Hararites”

71. The enclosure

72. [of] Abram (or stallions), possibly Beersheba or Hazar-Susah.

73. Stream

74. [of] Geber

75. Stream

76. [of] wrkt (Rakkath?)

77. The enclosure

78. [of] Zyt? Nzit?

79. dd[]i

80. Sapek

81. m[]i[]

82. Tap[puah?]


83. gnit

84. the Negev

85. [of] Edeht (Ezen?)

86. Tshdnw

87. The enclosure

88. [of] shnyi

89. hq

90. the Negev

91. [of] whtwrk

92. the Negev

93. [of] ishhtt (Shuhah?)

94. The enclosure

95. [of] hnni (Ben-Hanan?)

96. The enclosure

97. [of] El-Gad

98. idmm(t) (Edom?)

99. hnni (Ben-Hanan?)


100. Addar

101. The enclosure

102. [of] Tilon (?)

103. hydbi (the Precinct)

104. [of] Sharan Ri’m (the plain of antelopes?)

105. The Heights

106. [of]? dywt

107. [the] enclosures [of]

108. Arad

109. the Great

110. Arad

111. [of] the house [of] (nbtt)

112. Yeroham (Jerahmeel?)

113. xxx

114. xxx

115. xxx

116. Addar

Row IX

117. Addar

118. xxx

119. xxx

120. xxx

121. Peletham/Peleth

122. Abel (field)

123. Bir Lawz (Well of Almonds)

124. Beth ‘Anath

125. Sharuhen

126. The hall of the Jackal?

127. g-r-n-i (threshing floor)

128. idmm(t)

129. xxx

130. xxx

131. xxx

132. El-Ra[m]

133. Yurza

134. xxx

135. xxx

136. xxx

137. xxx

138. xxx

Row X

139. Yeroham

140. ‘Iwn-ni-ni (Onam)

141. xxx

142. xxx

143. xxx

144. xxx

145. M-‘-k[t] (Maacah)

146. Addar

147. xxx

148. xxx

149. xxx

150. Y-w-r-d-n

Extension of Row X

1. Sharudad/Shaludad

2. Raphia

3. Laban (whose chief is mentioned by Sargon II in 716 BC as being in charge of refugees “in the border region of the Brook of Egypt”)

4. ngrn (‘Ain Goren?) (Well of the Threshing Floor?)

5. ham