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1206 BC- Shasu of Edom pass the Fort of Merenptah which is in Succoth to reach the Pools of Pithom of Merenptah which is/are in Succoth, probably at Tell el-Retabeh, 30°32’53″N, 31°57’50″E.

Pre-Saite-The Israelites journey from Rameses and encamp in Succoth and after leaving Succoth they camp in Etham on the edge of the desert.

Saite-Necho builds Tell el-Maskhuta, 30°33’8″N, 32° 5’57″E. Retabeh is abandoned.

309-246 BC-Ptolemy II mentions Pithom and Succoth as cities in a stele found at Maskhuta. The Septuagint mentions Heroopolis as the city of the land of Ramesses Judah went before when he met Joseph.

15 AD-Strabo mentions Heroopolis as a city near the Gulf of Suez.

Early 2nd century-Ptolemy mentions Heroopolis as a city near the Gulf of Suez.

280s AD-The Itinerary of Antonius goes as thus: From Babylon to Heliopolis-58,000 feet/XII miles

From Heliopolis to Scenae Veteranorum-87,000 feet/XVIII miles or 67,700 feet/XIV miles

From Scenae Veteranorum to Vicus Judaeorum-58,000 feet/XII miles

From Vicus Judaeorum to Thou/Tohu-58,000 feet/XII miles

From Thou to Heroopolis-116,000 feet/XXIV miles

From Heroopolis to Serapeum-97,000 feet/XVII miles

From Serapeum to Clysma-242,000 feet/L miles

303-305 AD Milestone found at Maskhuta states: “From Ero to Clysma, 9 miles”, proving Ero is near Retabeh, or that there was a ‘Clysma’ where the Nile-Red Sea canal flowed into Lake Timsah. I suspect the latter possibility is more likely.

Early 5th century- Egeria says: “The city of Pithom, which the children of Israel built, was shown to us on the same journey at the place where, leaving the lands of the Saracens, we entered the territory of Egypt; the same Pithom is now a fort. The city of Hero, which existed at the time when Joseph met his father Jacob as he came, as it is written in the book of Genesis, is now a come,4 though a large one–a village as we say. This village has a church and martyr-memorials, and many cells of holy monks, so that we had to alight to see each of them, in accordance with the custom which we had. The village is now called Hero; it is situated at the sixteenth milestone from the land of Goshen, and it is within the boundaries of Egypt; moreover, it is a very pleasant spot, for an arm of the Nile flows there.”

4th Century-Coptic translation of the Septuagint translates “Heroopolis” as “Pithom”.

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