Necho, Ramesses, and Stratigraphy

Velikovskyians, when pointed out the fact that Necho cannot be Ramesses, point to various OOPArts (pottery, scarabs, ect.) in archeological strata (i.e. Ramesside scarabs in the 6th century stratum at Lachish, a Stele of Seti I at Beth-Shean in an Iron age stratum (980-732 BC), and some anomalous pottery in tombs. All this is easily explainable by the fact that, sometimes, especially during emergencies, city planners dug up old soil (and pottery and scarabs along with it) to make way for new projects or strengthen existing construction. This is what happened in the case of Lachish and Azekah. As for rare examples of OOPArt pottery and scarabs not found in fills, they are most likely heirlooms.  The Seti I stele was probably dug up during a digging project or was possessed by the Beth-Sheanites as an heirloom. The Tomb of Ahiram from the early 10th (not 7th!) century and the beads of Carchemish may be explained likewise. Younger pottery can get into older strata during burials. Byblos, apparently, has suffered so much digging up and burying that it cannot be stratified in certain areas!

In all other cases the supposed parallels have probably been made up. Archeologists’ works should be consulted after reading any original Velikovskyan statement.

Author: pithom

An atheist with an interest in the history of the ancient Near East. Author of the Against Jebel al-Lawz Wordpress blog.

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