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Here is the source for reconstructing Egeria’s journey before she goes into the Nagb Hawa. It is recorded by Peter the Deacon, who also interpolates his account with a long clearly Late Byzantine description of Clysma as a mighty seaport (Ras Banas was always the preferred seaport before Late Byzantine times). This account also provides the curious indication that even during the days of Egeria, Wady Gharandal, then called Arandara, was identified as Elim. It would be later identified as as Elim by later Suez crossing proponents, and described in exactly the same manner, even though it does not remotely match the Biblical account. Curious, however, is Egeria’s identification of ‘Ayun Musa (the real Elim) as Marah, for it only had two springs in her day.

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