I continue in my description and debunking of Don Stewart‘s theses.

1. Making Redford’s Mistake with Ramesses

Stewart, like Donald Redford, makes the mistake of assuming the name Ramesses, if not transliterated during a late period, would be transliterated into Hebrew as Resh/Ain/Mem/Shin/He, when, in fact, it is transliterated Resh/Ain/Mem/Samek/Samek. However, when one compares Hebrew and Egyptian words, one finds that Egyptian “s” is usually transliterated “Samek” (Hoffmeier, in Sinai, pg. 55). Besides, the last letter of “Ramesses”, if transliterated correctly into Hebrew, would not be He, but Waw, or, as is actually transliterated in the text, Samek. Also, the name “Ramesses” comes in different forms, including Rmss, Rmsw, and Rms. The form “Rmss” is not necessarily a late one.

2. Hudet=Judah

The Winged Sun Hudet/Behdet was later interpreted as a manifestation of Re, and was often used to symbolize Horus. The name Behdet is first attested on the Step Pyramid of Djoser and became a district of Edfu in the Middle Kingdom. The Winged Sun first appeared in the 1st-3rd Dynasties and became referred to as “Behdet” only in the days of Sneferu and had already spread to Calah and Gozan by the 9th C BC.

The Winged Sun only appeared on royal seals in Judah and personal seals Israel in the 8th C BC, long after the winged sun had spread from Egypt and was part of the Syrian royal insignia. How, then, can any man who did his research ascociate Judah and Behdet? To use this as the foremost proof of Velikovskyan chronology is even more laughable!

3. Hophra=Africa=Ophir=Pharaoh

This is quite laughable conjecture. Ophir is mentioned as part of Joktan, between Sheba (Marib) and Havilah (the Arabian Desert), ergo, it should be in Arabia. The names “Pharaoh” and “Ophir” correspond in only three letters in the Hebrew. The name “Africa” came from the vicinity of Carthage, which, unlike Ophir, was not known for its gold (however, “Africa” and “Ophir” may derive from the same root word). Hophra/Apries is nobody but Wah-ib-re, meaning “Consort of the Heart of Re”-related neither to Pharaoh nor to Ophir.