Israel Finkelstein points out that the only evidence for an Iron I-IIa settlement at Tell el-Ful comes from a fill, that there is not the least bit of evidence for a fortress at Tell el-Ful, but only for a tower built by Assyrian architectural methods and dating to the reign of Sennacherib (or possibly, Esarhaddon) which survived into the Babylonian period. The tower was then rebuilt during the 3rd or 2nd C BC, and survived fairly well (though in ruins) until the Late Ottoman period. In short, there is no archaeological evidence for Tell el-Ful being biblical Gibeah. However, I find Finkelstein’s identification of the settlement with Parah/Pharathon however, unkikely, since Parah belonged to East, not, as with Ramah, West Benjamin, to which Tell el-Ful would have probably belonged.

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