The LMLK Map, Undivided Bottom Inscription Edition

WARNING: All the Maroon parts of the pie charts on the below map are based on pure guesswork. It is rarely possible to distinguish between an x2U and x2D. The Maroon part for Lachish is too small.

Above: A map of Undivided Bottom Inscription lmlk impressions. Blue is Hebron, Orange is Ziph, Green is MMST, and Maroon are those with eroded inscriptions.

Perhaps the most notable fact about this map is the diversification of Lachish’s lmlk impressions, and the loss of its usual Hebron impression majority. MMST impression numbers also increase significantly during this phase. This map argues for a southern lmlk Socoh even better than the Lapidarist Map. Something about this map looks…truncated. Perhaps it’s that Gath was destroyed by Assyria just before this phase began. Most likely, it’s due to the 701 BC campaign of Sennacherib, which ended x2U production. Only just over 50 x2U impressions were found at Lachish. The contrast of these numbers with those of the Lapidarist lmlk impressions (248 at Lachish) is staggering. However, in totum, 199 Lapidarist impressions are confirmed Lapidarist by George Grena while a slightly smaller 178 Undivided impressions are confirmed by the same man. This demonstrates a serious deficiency in the publication of lmlk impressions at Lachish. In probability, the true amount of excavated/discovered x4Ls is 340+. Thus, it appears that Hezekiah switched to an Assyrianizing symbol right at the time he began to revolt against Assyria. The question is, why?

Author: pithom

An atheist with an interest in the history of the ancient Near East. Author of the Against Jebel al-Lawz Wordpress blog.

7 thoughts on “The LMLK Map, Undivided Bottom Inscription Edition”

  1. In your 2011-11-16 post (“Dating the LMLK stamps”) you correlated the earliest LMLKs with the beginning of his revolt around 705-702 (“preparing for siege, first seals designed“), then the x2U design 2-1 years later. But now in this post you have the revolt beginning with the x2U design (“right at the time he began to revolt“).

    1. My views changed. I now view the lmlk system as a more long-lasting one than I originally thought (perhaps, c. 720-c. 680 BC). Perhaps, I will do a later post on this subject. I still might be correct about my “siege preparations” idea.

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