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It is clear Arabia had some form of connection with the Levant since at least the Late Bronze Age. However, a curious, but infrequently mentioned inscription has emerged on the antiquities market. According to Andrew Lemaire, the inscription tells of a courier of Saba named Sabahhumu, from Nashq, who records his expeditions to “Dedan, [Gaz]a, and the towns of Judah”. His expeditions, therefore, must have taken place before 586 BC. The inscription also, according to Lemaire, mentions a war in Chaldaea and Ionia, suggesting it dates after Nebuchadnezzar’s Levantine conquest in 604 BC. It is, therefore, quite apparent that the Arabian trade was thriving during the Late Iron IIc. As evidenced by the existence of Qurayyah ware, the Arabian trade already existed in the thirteenth century BC, though its existence was solidified by the Judahite and Assyrian fortress networks. Lemaire also points out Assyrian era-Late IrIIc South Arabian inscriptions at Tel Beersheba, Tel Aroer, and the City of David. According to TBU (page 268) the City of David South Arabian inscriptions were carved on locally-made vessels. This may or may not mean there was a resident South Arabian population in Judah. In any case, it is very unlikely that Solomon would be the man in the Levant any tenth century BC queen of Sheba would go to.

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