A state is a group of people with a claimed and largely effective ultimate total control over the use of force, law-making, and taxation in a given area.
An empire is a state ruling over ethnically heterogeneous territories whose inhabitants have no representation in determining that state’s decisions while being taxed by that state.
Reasoning: Much like modern Israel’s colonization of the West Bank does not make it an empire, England’s colonization of Bermuda and Virginia didn’t make it an empire. Modern Israel’s taxation of native inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza, however, did make it an empire.
Imperialization is the process of the transformation of a state into an empire.
Imperialism is either the policy, behavior, or ideology directly associated with establishment and maintenance of empire.
A colonist is a person who emigrates from a metropole and does not owe allegiance to the native government of the country in which he or she settles or a descendant of such a person.
Colonies are settlements inhabited by colonists from the same metropole in an area outside the metropole.
My reasoning behind this definition is that Judea did not become a colony of Rome in 6 AD; thus, India did not become a colony of the United Kingdom in 1858. It is also nonsensical to claim that Tyre’s actual colonies and tributary states can both be considered colonies as they both paid tribute to Tyre. Colonies include Jamestown, Carthage, Katzrin, colonial Lima, and Portugese Macau.
Colonization is the establishment of colonies.
Colonialism is either the policy, behavior, or ideology directly associated with establishment and maintenance of colonies.