Why Exodus Is 1st Millennium BC

1. The Land of Goshen, where the Israelites lived (Exodus 9:26) was in the area of Pithom/Tell Retabeh and Ramesses/Qantir, east of the Pelusiac (Ex 1:11).

2. Pharaoh’s residence was hit by the plague of flies, while Goshen was not (Ex 8:21-24). Since the Israelites lived in Ramesses/Qantir, the capital during the time of writing of Exodus could not have been the Ramesside capital, Pi-Ramesse/Ramesses, and was certainly west of the Pelusiac.

3. According to Ex 7:15, the Exodus capital was on the bank of the Nile. According to Ex 12:31-41, one could leave Egypt from the capital in less than a night. There was an implied proximity between the capital and Goshen. Psalm 78:12, 43, confirms the identification of the Exodus capital with Zoan/Tanis.