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Janoah was a city taken by Tiglath-Pileser III in 733 BC. The other cities he took, Ijon (Khiam), Abel Beth-Maacah (Abil al-Qamh), Kedesh(-Naphtali, 33° 6’48″N, 35°32’1″E), and Hazor. It is sometimes identified as Yenoam (or Yanoam), a city first mentioned by Thutmose III and last by Rameses III, most famously being mentioned by Merenptah as being “made into nonexistence” just before his mention of the Israelites. It has been identified with numerous sites, from Tell esh-Shihab, 32°41’32″N, 35°58’5″E (New Kingdom presence, topographical lists) to Tell en-Na’am (S), 32°42’47″N, 35°30’44″E (good location), to Tell en-Na’ameh/Na’meh/Na’am (N), 33°10’32″N, 35°35’43″E (good fit with EA 197), to Tell el-Ubeidiya, 32°41’20″N, 35°33’42″E. Of these, Tell en-Na’am (S) can be safely excluded for being too small and unfortified, and Tell esh-Shihab can be excluded for being outside the reach of Damascus in EA 197 (Ashtaroth, 32°48’16″N, 36° 0’56″E, was blocking the way). Tell el-Ubediya is a tough nut to crack, and might be somewhat compatible with the Seti I relief and Beth-Shean stela, but it does not have a very good relationship with either the topographical lists or EA 197. Tell en-Na’ameh has a good relationship with EA 197 and the lists, but is not that well compatible with Seti I’s Beth-Shean stela. It has good attestation from it size and archeology, not to mention its name. Its location is better compatible with Janoah than Kh. Niha, but the preservation of the name (m lost and regained?) poses problems. In short, while Yenoam is probably at Tell en-Na’ameh, Janoah’s identification is uncertain. Note: EA 364 (218), telling of a border dispute between Ashtaroth and Hazor prove Yenoam to be at the northern Tell en-Na’ameh.

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